Chained and Changed (Gender Swap and Feminization)
Based on hormones measured from saliva of the participants, Pisanski et al. In two other published studies, Roney at al.
A more recent study by Ditzen et al. Welling et al. Bobst et al. Interestingly, the reward value of sexually dimorphic faces presented to naturally cycling women was greater when women had high T levels [ 12 ]. This suggests that these women found sexual dimorphism more rewarding depending on levels of sex hormones, but the effect was visible only for attractive faces and feminine female faces and not for masculine male faces.
Moreover, not all published studies verified sexual orientation of participants, and, more importantly, none tracked full hormonal profiles across the menstrual cycle. In other words, we designed a study that allowed both intra- and inter-participant analyses, had a relatively large sample size of 68 women, and directly verified occurrence of ovulation in a cycle.
Written and informed consent has been collected from all participants upon agreeing for participation in the study. Women were recruited from the Malopolska region of Poland. Out of the women recruited, completed the study. Eight women scored 4 or higher on the Kinsey Sexual Orientation Scale self-defined themselves as bi- or homosexual [ 16 ] and were, therefore, excluded from analysis, as sexual orientation can influence preferences towards facial features [ 17 ].
Additional 26 took preference tests during non-ovulatory cycle verified based on LH tests. Raw, anonymized data can be found in S2 File. Based on the same dataset, two articles have been already published [ 18 ], [ 19 ]. In Marcinkowska et al. Due to obtaining funding for testosterone measurements after the publication of the mentioned results analyses that used testosterone measurements could not have been added to previous articles.
The current article focuses on testosterone, another sex hormone that possibly influences sexual preferences in women. After obtaining null results for two other sex hormones in previous studies we decided to examine whether testosterone might be at least partly responsible for masculinity preferences changes.
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The analyses involving testosterone were conducted after the previous articles have been published, but we believe that these articles together provide a more coherent picture of hormonal bases of sexual preferences, particularly given the mixed results for T and masculinity preferences that have been reported in the literature see Introduction. During the introductory meeting, participants were instructed how to collect and store saliva samples, gave written instructions, and were given a set of 2 mL centrifuge tubes with minimum amount of required saliva marked.
Saliva was collected daily, usually immediately after waking up, starting from the first day of menstrual bleeding until the end of the cycle one day before next menstrual bleeding.
LH urine tests were conducted from the 10th until 20th day of the cycle or until obtaining a positive result of the test following [ 20 ]. Participants attended 3 meetings.
To be herself, she needs to change her body. But first, comes the battle with insurers
It was not possible to facilitate a luteal phase meeting before the onset of the next menses due to premature arrival of the next menses for 12 cycles. For this subsample, the third meeting took place on the 1st or 2nd day of the next menses, as this time of the cycle is also a low-fertility period [ 21 ]. During each of the three meetings, participants completed three surveys: the attractiveness judgement of male faces that differ in sexual dimorphism, the socio-demographic questionnaire e. Further, via 2-alternative forced-choice participants selected the more attractive of the two simultaneously presented facial photographs.
Each slide depicted two versions of the same facial photograph i. The individual pictured in Fig 1 has given written informed consent as outlined in PLOS consent form to publish this image. Pictures were presented in a random order. Levels of testosterone T were measured in daily collected saliva samples.
Participants were instructed to collected saliva samples immediately after waking up and at least 30 minutes after eating, drinking or smoking, and to freeze a sample immediately upon collection. Hormonal measurements were conducted using commercially available hormonal assays of DRG International Incl. Elisa plates SLV for testosterone sensitivity: 1.
Inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variability CVs were computed and were on acceptable levels: inter-assay CV was Owing to some missing data in independent variables see Table 1 , we started by imputing 20 data sets using multilevel sequential regression or chained equations approach using unrestricted model with Bayesian estimator.
Our final results are thus based on the combined results from these 20 data sets. We used time of ovulation as the knot point that separated the two linear regression slopes i. Both the linear slopes and the intercept were further modelled as random variance factors in order to allow for between-subject variation in those quantities [ 21 ].
Does testosterone predict women’s preference for facial masculinity?
Levels of testosterone during follicular phase, peri-ovulatory and luteal phase were group-mean centered i. This question was statistically tested by comparing within- and between-women regression parameters of testosterone [ 27 ]. Hence, as within-women predictors, the model included testosterone measured at the three different phases of the menstrual cycle and the two variables describing bilinear change in masculinity preferences [ 26 ].
The estimated mean value of testosterone during the whole cycle, based on 15 consecutive daily measurements, was used as the between-women predictor. To facilitate model convergence, the value of testosterone was divided by Bilinear spline indicators were also divided by 10 in order to increase the numeric precision of their variance component. The model was estimated for each multiple imputed data set using robust maximum likelihood, after which the results were compiled. As testosterone might be related to or work in accordance with other two sex hormones, namely estradiol and progesterone, the model then was applied including two additional sex hormones.
Bing Site Web Enter search term: Search. Ad Feature. Today's headlines Most Read Woman, 20, discovers headache and flu symptoms are caused by FIVE brain tumours which spread from a mole she Pregnant mother-of-three, 39, who underwent robotic chest surgery to stop her body from making too much Nightmares prepare us for real-life dangers: People who have bad dreams handle stressful situations more Monkey 'infects scientist with deadly herpes B virus' in a Japanese laboratory in country's first human case NHS on track for a devastating winter: Hospital admissions are highest in a decade so far this year with Diarrhoea test can determine cause of the illness 'in just an hour instead of days' and free up hospital Woman who refused to have gastric bypass surgery lost lbs naturally - but has been left with 20lbs of A representative for her insurer told her the plan complied with the most recent requirements of the ACA but noted that Health and Human Services had not yet "issued guidance or regulations with respect to many aspects of these laws," which was true at the time.
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She would later find out that others like her -- with self-insured group plans that are not subject to the ACA -- have filed complaints with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, which enforces workplace anti-discrimination laws. But she wasn't aware of her rights. By the time she had invested the energy in educating herself on the jurisdictional maze of health plans, she had lost her job and her benefits. Now, the software engineer said she works for a new company with benefits for gender-affirming procedures, and she has hope.
Autumn Traficante paid out of pocket for facial feminization surgery. Autumn Trafficante says she spent most of her 20s "trying to do the guy thing" after puberty forced upon her a masculine visage. By her late 20s, it got to the point where she couldn't stand to catch her reflection in a car window -- let alone a mirror -- and see someone she didn't recognize. She tried to feminize her appearance with clothes and makeup, she said, only to have her identity undercut by a stranger calling her the wrong gender.
Right before her 28th birthday, she decided she'd had enough and put together a timeline and a budget for transitioning, she said. Then, she hit a snag with her marketplace plan. Despite letters from her physicians attesting to the medical necessity of the surgery, her insurer said in a denial letter that it considered facial feminization procedures cosmetic. Two years later, she is still trying to seek reimbursement -- not just for her own wallet's sake but to set a precedent so that paying out of pocket is no longer necessary.
An Oregon graduate student who asked to remain anonymous said she chose her school in part because its health plan offered benefits for gender-affirming procedures.
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She still spent nearly a year going back and forth with her insurer to get pre-authorization for facial feminization surgery -- even with her doctor's endorsement of its medical necessity. Her provider finally agreed, but she said she still had to pay out of pocket because her surgeon required payment upfront. Thanks to efforts of her graduate student labor union, the plan changed in to explicitly cover the procedure, and she was able to obtain reimbursement from her insurer.
Being transgender is not a mental illness. It's a state of identifying with a gender that differs from the sex you were assigned at birth. But for a transgender person to get coverage for gender-affirming care, they must often be diagnosed with gender dysphoria, a mental disorder. Some contend that the diagnosis inappropriately pathologizes gender noncongruence and should be eliminated. Others argue that the diagnosis ensures access to care.
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What is medically necessary treatment for gender-affirming health care? Initially, Jasmine thought the diagnosis would help her obtain coverage. Four years later, she says it has created barriers to treatment by stigmatizing her with a mental health diagnosis. As soon as Jasmine found out that 12 months of hormone treatment was a prerequisite for genital surgery, she started therapy to confirm a diagnosis of gender dysphoria, she said, even though she didn't have insurance at the time.