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Pyruvate carboxylase PC is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyses the carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate thereby allowing supplementation of citric acid cycle intermediates. The presence of PC in skeletal muscle is controversial.
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We report here, that PC protein is easily detectable Most patients survive more than 5 years after surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. Improving long-term survival in ACC requires the development of more effective systemic therapies based on a better understanding of the biologic behavior of ACC. Much preclinical research in this field involves the use of cultured cells and, to date, several ACC cell lines have been established. Authentication of these cell lines, however, has not been reported.
We performed DNA fingerprint analysis on six ACC cell lines using short tandem repeat STR examinations and found that all six cell lines had been contaminated with other cells. These observations suggest that future studies using ACC cell lines should include cell line authentication to avoid the use of contaminated or non-human cells. Covalent dimerization of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase subunits by UV radiation.
Ferreira, R. Superior de Agronomia. The exposition of plant leaves or the pure enzyme to UV radiation produced a UV-dependent accumulation of a 65 kDa polypeptide P These studies revealed that P65 is a dimer, formed by the covalent, non-disulphide linkage of one small subunit with one large subunit of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase.
For short periods of time carboxylase. Formation of P65 was shown to depend on the native state of the protein, was stimulated by inhibitors of enzyme activity, and was inhibited by activators of enzyme activity. A UV-independent accumulation of P65 was also achieved by the in vitro incubation of plant crude extracts. However, the UV-dependent and the UV-independent formation of P65 seemed to occur by distinct molecular mechanisms.
The UV-dependent accumulation of P65 was immunologically detected in all species examined, including Lemna minor, Arum italicum, Brassica oleracea, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris, suggesting that it may constitute a universal response to UV radiation, common to all photosynthetic tissues. Different approaches were utilized to elucidate the origin and structure of P electrophoretic and fluorographic analyses of 35 S-labelled ribulose biphosphate carboxylase exposed to UV radiation and immunological experiments using antibodies specific for P65, for the large and small subunits of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase and for high-molecular-mass aggregates of the enzyme.
West Nile virus WNV is a neurotropic flavivirus transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes that causes meningitis and encephalitis in humans, horses, and birds. Several studies have highlighted that flavivirus infection is highly dependent on cellular lipids for virus replication and infectious particle biogenesis. This makes ACC a key enzyme of lipid synthesis that is currently being evaluated as a therapeutic target for different disorders, including cancers, obesity, diabetes, and viral infections.
Lipidomic analysis of TOFA-treated cells confirmed that this drug reduced the cellular content of multiple lipids, including those directly implicated in the flavivirus life cycle glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and cholesterol. Further analysis of the antiviral effect of this drug showed that the inhibitory effect was related to a reduction of viral replication.
These results point to the ACC as a druggable cellular target suitable for antiviral development against WNV and other flaviviruses.
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Full Text Available Vitis thunbergii VT is a wild grape that has been shown to provide various cardioprotective effects. The present study was designed to examine whether a VT extract could reduce serum lipid levels and prevent atherogenesis in a hypercholesterolemic rabbit model. At the end of an 8-week study, our results showed that a VT extract supplement markedly suppressed the serum levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, reduced lipid accumulation in liver tissues, and limited aortic fatty streaks.
Our results suggest that this VT extract could be further developed as a potential lipid-lowering agent and as a natural health food to prevent atherogenesis.
Chromium downregulates the expression of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase 1 gene in lipogenic tissues of domestic goats: a potential strategy for meat quality improvement. In this study, the mRNA expression of the ACC 1 gene was evaluated in four different tissues liver, visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and longissimus muscle of the domestic goat Capra hircus kids feeding on four different levels of trivalent chromium 0, 0. RT-qPCR technique was used for expression analyses and heat shock protein 90 gene HSP was considered as reference gene for data normalization.
Our results revealed that 1. Properties of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase immobilized on porous glass. Ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase from spinach has been bound to arylamine porous glass with a diazo linkage and to alklamine porous glass with glutaraldehyde. Recently, evidence suggests that dark CO2 fixation in the pelagic realm of the ocean does not only occur in the suboxic and anoxic water bodies but also in the oxygenated meso- and bathypelagic waters of the North Atlantic.
To elucidate the significance and phylogeny of the key organisms mediating dark CO2 fixation in the tropical Atlantic, we quantified functional genes indicative for CO2 fixation. Quantification of acc A-like genes revealed a consistent depth profile in the upper mesopelagial with increasing gene abundances from subsurface layers towards the oxygen minimum zone OMZ , coinciding with an increase in archaeal amoA gene abundance.
Gene abundance profiles of metabolic marker genes acc A, amoA were correlated with thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA gene abundances as well as CO2 fixation rates to link the genetic potential to actual rate measurements. However, performance optimization of Open ACC accelerated applications usually. The aim of this literature study is to identify the needs and the demands of the stakeholders in the Netherlands with respect to ACC and to assess its safety impact.
To assess the safety impact of ACC , three aspects should be considered: functional system safety, human machine interaction, and. Genetic profile of adenoid cystic carcinomas ACC with high-grade transformation versus solid type. Costa, A. Mayer, K. Nemaline rods are the pathologic hallmark of nemaline myopathy, but they have also been described as a secondary phenomenon in a variety of other disorders.
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Nemaline rods have not been reported in pyruvate carboxylase deficiency before. Here we present a patient with pyruvate carboxylase deficiency The moonlighting function of pyruvate carboxylase resides in the non-catalytic end of the TIM barrel.
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Pyruvate carboxylase is a highly conserved enzyme that functions in replenishing the tricarboxylic acid cycle with oxaloacetate. In the yeast Hansenulapolymorpha, the pyruvate carboxylase protein is also required for import and assembly of the peroxisomal enzyme alcohol oxidase. This additional. Griffith, David A.
However, the identification of tool compounds suitable to test the hypothesis in human trials has been challenging. An advanced series of spirocyclic ketone-containing ACC inhibitors recently reported by Pfizer were metabolized in vivo by ketone reduction, which complicated human pharmacology projections. Here, we disclose that this metabolic reduction can be greatly attenuated through introduction of steric hindrance adjacent to the ketone carbonyl.
Incorporation of weakly basic functionality improved solubility and led to the identification of 9 as a clinical candidate for the treatment of T2DM. Phase I clinical studies demonstrated dose-proportional increases in exposure, single-dose inhibition of de novo lipogenesis DNL , and changes in indirect calorimetry consistent with increased whole-body fatty acid oxidation. This demonstration of target engagement validates the use of compound 9 to evaluate the role of DNL in human disease.
A colorimetric assay of 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylate ACC based on ninhydrin reaction for rapid screening of bacteria containing ACC deaminase. We aim to develop a method for rapidly screening bacteria containing ACC deaminase, based on a colorimetric ninhydrin assay of ACC. A reliable colorimetric ninhydrin assay was developed to quantify ACC using heat-resistant polypropylene chimney-top well PCR plates, having the wells evenly heated in boiling water, preventing accidental contamination from boiling water and limiting evaporation.
With this method to measure bacterial consumption of ACC , 44 ACC -utilizing bacterial isolates were rapidly screened out from bacterial isolates that were able to grow on minimal media containing ACC as the sole nitrogen source. The PCR-plate ninhydrin- ACC assay extends the utility of the ninhydrin reaction and enables a rapid screening of bacteria containing ACC deaminase from large numbers of bacterial isolates.
Purpose Quality assuring elderly care through a viable and feasible standard framework is a major challenge for Asian governments. Although several attempts have been made to tackle foreign care worker FCW shortage, assuring the quality of the care they provide has been overlooked. The original framework allowed a better control over service quality to assure the elderly about their care according to the agreed standards.
The paper aims to discuss these issues. The governments' representatives adopted the JCC to form the ACC , which enables the ACC board to evaluate care workers and to intervene whenever the desired quality level is not achieved. Findings The author describes a new program. The findings of this paper will be confirmed when the ACC is implemented. Practical implications Using the ACC framework, the challenge in providing a high-quality care service using FCWs across Asia would be partly resolved.
FCWs' quality of life might also gradually improve especially regarding to their human rights. Its value is recognized if one considers that many Asian populations are rapidly aging and many governments compromise quality by employing overseas workers to solve care worker shortages. Anaplerotic roles of pyruvate carboxylase in mammalian tissues. PC serves an anaplerotic role for the tricarboxylic acid cycle, when intermediates are removed for different biosynthetic purposes. In liver and kidney, PC provides oxaloacetate for gluconeogenesis.
In adipocytes PC is involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis and glyceroneogenesis, and is regulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, suggesting that PC is involved in the metabolic switch controlling fuel partitioning toward lipogenesis. Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia impair this cycle and affect glucose-stimulated insulin release.
In astrocytes, PC is important for de novo synthesis of glutamate, an important excitatory neurotransmitter supplied to neurons. Transcriptional studies of the PC gene pinpoint some transcription factors that determine tissue-specific expression. Mitochondrial storage form of acetyl CoA carboxylase in fasted and alloxan diabetic rats. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured biotinyl proteins will bind [ 14 C]methyl avidin which remains bound through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
The method has been used to demonstrate the presence of two high molecular weight subunit forms of acetyl CoA carboxylase in rat liver cytoplasm, both of which are precipitated by antibody to purifed rat liver acetyl CoA carboxylase prepared from sheep serum. Rat liver mitochondria contained five distinct biotinyl protein subunits, the two largest of which have been identified as acetyl CoA carboxylase subunits on the basis of precipitation by anti- acetyl CoA carboxylase antibody.
The small quantity of acetyl CoA carboxylase associated with rat liver microsomes could be attributed to cytoplasmic contamination. The binding of radioactive avidin is sufficiently tight to use as a measure of the quantity of acetyl CoA carboxylase. The quantity and activity of the cytoplasmic enzyme was reduced in fasted and in alloxan diabetic rats compared to that in fed controls but the quantity of the enzyme associated with isolated mitochondria was not reduced.
The results indicate that there is a mitochondrial storage form of acetyl CoA carboxylase. Genotype-specific enrichment of ACC deaminase-positive bacteria in winter wheat rhizospheres. Bacteria that produce ACC deaminase promote plant growth and development by lowering levels of the stress hormone ethylene through deamination of 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid ACC , the immediate precursor of ethylene. In this context, code portability is increasingly important for easy maintainability of applications; this is relevant in scientific computing where code changes are numerous and frequent.
Open ACC aims to abstract parallel programming to a descriptive level, where programmers do not need to specify the mapping of the code on the target machine. Acetone metabolism in the aerobic bacterium Xanthobacter strain Py2 proceeds by a carboxylation reaction forming acetoacetate as the first detectable product.